#008- Articles on Stroke and Parkinson’s Disease

Covered Topics:

1. What are the Benefits if Inspiratory Muscle Training after Stroke?

2. The Value of Adding Respiratory Muscle Training to Treatments Plans for Parkinson’s Disease.

Estimated reading time: 2 minutes, 39 seconds.


What are the Benefits if Inspiratory Muscle Training after Stroke?

Inspiratory muscle strength after stroke is less than half compared to healthy adults, inspiratory muscle training (IMT) is done by applying resistance to inspiratory muscles, aiming to restore and maintain pulmonary function, this systematic review and meta analysis investigated the effect of inspiratory muscle training on pulmonary function, pulmonary infection incidence, respiratory muscle strength, activities of daily living, and quality of life.


13 trials, 189 participant in the IMT group and 184 in the control group.

IMT was not combined with other intervention in the experimental groups.

  • Beneficial effects of inspiratory muscle training were found on :
    • Pulmonary function.
    • Pulmonary infection incidence.
    • 6-minute walk test.
    • Maximum inspiratory pressure.
    • Inspiratory muscle endurance.
    • Diaphragm thickening ratio at the paretic side, but not for the non-paretic side.
  • Post-stroke patients with a duration of less than 6 months showed significant improvement of forced vital capacity and forced expired volume in 1 second.
  • Regarding chest expansion, no significant increase was detected as provided by 1 trial.
  • Quality of life results were not significant between IMT groups and control group

Recommended Protocol:

  • More than 20 min/day more than 3 times/week for 3 weeks

Learned from this article:

  • Inspiratory muscle training can be an effective intervention to improve:
    • Pulmonary function.
    • Cardiopulmonary endurance.
    • Pulmonary infection incidence

The authors noted that the results are insufficient to make firm recommendations.

The Value of Adding Respiratory Muscle Training to Treatments Plans for Parkinson’s Disease.

The objective of the systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of respiratory muscle training in persons with Parkinson’s disease.

Results from 3 RCTs, including 111 participant:

Inspiratory muscle training:

  • Statistically positive results were found in maximal inspiratory pressure.
  • Reduced the perception of dyspnoea by 22% with an increase of 46% in muscle endurance.
  • Large positive effects were seen for mean maximum phonation time and peak sound pressure level.

Expiratory muscle training:

  • Maximal expiratory pressure results were positively significant.
  • Swallowing function, measured by the penetration/aspiration score, showed moderate positive effects, compared with a sham group.
  • Large effects in both mean and peak sound pressure level in comparison with the control group.

Inspiratory muscle training vs expiratory muscle training:

  • From 1 trial, expiratory muscle training was more effective in increasing expiratory muscle strength, peak flow during voluntary coughing and phonatory measures.


  • Respiratory training in Parkinson’s disease is very lacking.
  • The current limited data suggest that respiratory muscle training improves respiratory muscle strength, swallowing function and phonatory parameters.

Final Note

  • Respiratory training for both stroke and Parkinson’s disease patients, although promising but not enough evidence to support it yet.


  • People searched for inspiratory muscle training double the amount of time that they searched for expiratory muscle training or respiratory muscle training, and they were only searched by people in America, Canada and the United Kingdom. (Year 2020)


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